XFP vs SFP+: A Comparative Analysis in the Realm of Optical Transceiver Modules

The digital world is powered by data, and this data travels at incredible speeds across vast networks to bring the world closer together. One of the integral components that ensure efficient and reliable data transmission in networking devices are optical transceivers. In this blog post, we’re going to delve deep into two widely used types of transceiver modules – XFP vs SFP+ – comparing their standards, parameters, and application scenarios.

XFP vs SFP+: Standard

XFP, or 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable, is a hot-pluggable transceiver used for high-speed computer network and telecommunication links that use optical fiber. It adheres to the standards of SONET OC-192, SDH STM-64, and 10 Gbit/s Optical Transport Network (OTN) OTU-2.

On the other hand, SFP +, or Small Form Factor Pluggable Plus, is an enhanced version of the SFP that supports data rates up to 16 Gbps. The SFP+ standards include SONET OC-192, SDH STM-64, OTN G.709, CPRI wireless, 16G Fibre Channel, and the emerging 32G Fibre Channel application.

XFP vs SFP+: Parameters Comparison

To offer a comprehensive understanding of XFP and SFP+, here is a tabular comparison of their key parameters.

Publish Time20022006
StandardSONET OC-192, SDH STM-64, 10 Gbit/s OTN OTU-2SONET OC-192, SDH STM-64, OTN G.709, CPRI wireless, 16G FC, 32G FC
Form Factor SizeLargerSmaller
Power ConsumptionHigher (3.5W)Lower (1W)
Data Rate10 Gbit/s10 Gbit/s, 16 Gbit/s, 32 Gbit/s

As can be inferred from the table, SFP+ comes out as the more advanced and efficient transceiver, with a higher data rate capacity, lower power consumption, and smaller size.

SFP+ vs XFP: Application Scenarios

Now that we’ve understood the basic differences between XFP and SFP+, let’s look at where these transceivers find their applications.

XFP is commonly used in 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, 10 Gbit/s SONET/SDH/OTN and CWDM/DWDM systems. It is designed for the larger form factor slots in network routers and switches.

SFP+, being a more advanced and compact version, finds broader applications. It is employed in 10G, 16G, and even 32G Fibre Channel systems. SFP+ is widely utilized in data center connections, high-performance computing (HPC) environments, enterprise wiring closets, large cloud service providers, and carrier-neutral internet exchanges.


Q: Can SFP+ modules be used in XFP slots?

A: No. The physical form factors are different, and hence, SFP+ modules cannot be used in XFP slots and vice versa.

Q: Can XFP and SFP+ modules interoperate?

A: Yes. XFP and SFP+ modules can interoperate with each other over a single link if they are operating at the same data rate.


Both XFP and SFP+ have made significant contributions to the development of the optical network. However, the SFP+ with its smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher data rates, seems to be the more favorable option in most modern networking environments.

Despite this, it’s essential to remember that the best choice between XFP and SFP+ greatly depends on the specific application scenario and the requirements of the network. Both transceiver types have their own merits and roles to play in the vast landscape of optical communication. Therefore, it is essential to make informed decisions based on individual networking needs and circumstances.

Fiber Optic Cable Types Comparison: Single Mode vs Multimode Fiber Cable

Fiber optic cables, also known as optical cables, are at the forefront of the telecommunications industry, providing unparalleled speed and transmission distance compared to traditional copper cables. Their widespread application in diverse fields, from internet service providers to medical scanning devices, has amplified the significance of understanding the difference between single mode fiber (SMF) and multimode fiber (MMF) optic cable types. This article will delve into the construction, distance capabilities, cost, color, and bandwidth of both cable types to elucidate the differences and provide a comprehensive comparison.

 Overview of Single Mode Fiber Cable and Multimode Fiber Optic Cable

The basic distinction between SMF and MMF arises from their core diameter and mode of propagation. The SMF, with a smaller core diameter, allows the propagation of a single light mode, while MMF, having a larger core, supports the transmission of multiple light modes simultaneously.

fiber optic cable

Core Diameter

The core diameter is integral to the performance of fiber optic cables. The SMF has a smaller core diameter, typically 9 micrometers, ensuring that only a single light mode can travel through it. This results in lower data loss and greater transmission distance. In contrast, MMF has a larger core diameter, usually 50 or 62.5 micrometers, allowing multiple light modes to propagate. This causes more dispersion and limits the transmission distance.

The size of the fiber core impacts the attenuation or signal loss in fiber optic cables. Larger core diameters, as seen in MMF, often result in higher attenuation due to numerous light reflections, whereas the narrower core of SMF enables minimal reflections, leading to lower attenuation. Let’s look at a comparison table that provides clarity on this aspect:

Fiber TypeCore Diameter (microns)Attenuation at 1310nm (dB/km)Attenuation at 1550nm (dB/km)Attenuation at 850nm (dB/km)Attenuation at 1300nm (dB/km)
9/125 Single Mode Fiber90.40.25N/AN/A
50/125 OM3 Multimode Fiber50N/AN/A3.01.0

Please note, the higher attenuation in MMF at both 850nm and 1300nm wavelengths is due to its larger core diameter, which allows multiple light paths, thus causing more signal loss due to scattering and dispersion. On the other hand, the SMF’s narrow core allows a single light path, resulting in significantly less signal loss at its operating wavelengths (1310nm and 1550nm).

Wavelength & Transceiver

The operating wavelength and associated transceivers for SMF and MMF also differ significantly. SMF operates typically at 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths, paired with longer-range transceivers. MMF operates at shorter wavelengths like 850 nm and 1300 nm, using shorter distance transceivers.

Cable Bandwidth

Bandwidth, a measure of data transfer capacity, also sets SMF and MMF apart. Due to its single-mode propagation, SMF has a virtually unlimited bandwidth, subject to equipment limitations. MMF, owing to its multi-mode propagation and dispersion, has a limited bandwidth, restricting its data transfer rate over long distances.

Single Mode vs Multimode Fiber Distance

The transmission distance of fiber optic cables is a critical consideration. OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4, and OM5 are different types of MMF with varying core diameters and bandwidths, offering different maximum transmission distances. Conversely, OS2 is a type of SMF with superior distance capabilities, making it ideal for long-range applications.

To gain a comprehensive understanding of the transmission distances associated with the various types of fiber optic cables, we’ll present a comparative table that includes OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4, OM5 (all types of MMF), and OS2 (SMF).

Fiber TypeMaximum Transmission Distance (at specific speed)
OM1 (MMF)Up to 275m at 1Gb, Up to 33m at 10Gb
OM2 (MMF)Up to 550m at 1Gb, Up to 82m at 10Gb
OM3 (MMF)Up to 300m at 10Gb, Up to 100m at 40/100Gb SR4
OM4 (MMF)Up to 550m at 10Gb, Up to 150m at 40/100Gb SR4
OM5 (MMF)Up to 550m at 10Gb, Up to 400m at 40/100Gb SR4
OS2 (SMF)Based on the transceiver, more than 1000+ km

Fiber Cost

The cost of using fiber optic cables varies significantly, especially when comparing different transceivers. The cost of QSFPTEK SFP-1G-SX, SFP-1G-LX, SFP-10G-SR, SFP-10G-LR, QSFP-40G-SR4, QSFP-40G-LR4, QSFP-100G-SR4, and QSFP-100G-LR4 can be quite different when used with SMF and MMF. Generally, MMF cables and associated equipment are cheaper than SMF due to their simpler manufacturing process and shorter transmission distance requirements.


In conclusion, the selection between single-mode and multimode fiber optic cables depends on the specific requirements of the application, considering factors such as transmission distance, cost, and bandwidth. For short-range, high-bandwidth applications, MMF may be a more cost-effective solution. Conversely, for long-distance transmission, where high data rates and minimal loss are crucial, SMF would be the preferred choice. Hence, an understanding of the differences between these types of fiber optic cables is indispensable for making an informed decision.

What is 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 transceiver?

The 100G QSFP28 CWDM4, a cutting-edge optical transceiver, is one of the significant advancements in the world of network infrastructure. It stands for Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable 28 Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing 4. In essence, this transceiver utilizes wavelength division multiplexing technology to increase the quantity of data sent over a single fiber optic cable, providing impressive speeds up to 100 gigabits per second (100G).

The “QSFP28” part of the name refers to the transceiver’s format, which can accommodate high-speed electrical interfaces for data rates up to 100G. “CWDM4” designates the device’s use of four channels, each using a different wavelength, to transmit and receive data. This particular technology allows for a total of 100G data transmission across a 2 km single-mode fiber, which greatly improves the efficiency of data center interconnections.

Work Principle for QSFP28 CWDM4

The operation of a QSFP28 CWDM4 transceiver is based on the principles of coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The CWDM technology divides the total bandwidth into multiple channels, each assigned a unique wavelength. This allows simultaneous transmission of different data streams over a single fiber optic cable.

In the case of the QSFP28 CWDM4, there are four channels in use, each with its specific wavelength between 1270nm and 1330nm, spaced 20nm apart. These four wavelengths are multiplexed together and sent across a single fiber for both transmit and receive functions. This multiplexing action results in a quadrupling of the fiber optic cable’s data-carrying capacity, achieving data rates up to 100Gbps.


QSFPTEK CWDM4 Specification

Based on the specification provided at https://www.qsfptek.com/product/88421.html, the QSFPTEK CWDM4 comes with impressive features. Here is a summary:

Data Rate100Gbps
Wavelengths1270nm, 1290nm, 1310nm, 1330nm
Fiber TypeSingle-Mode Fiber (SMF)
Transceiver FormatQSFP28
Operating Temperature0°C to 70°C
Maximum Power Consumption3.5W
Optical ComponentsUncooled 4x25G DFB Laser
InterfaceDuplex LC Connector
Digital Diagnostic MonitoringYes, via I2C interface
ComplianceRoHS6, CE, FCC, CDRH, MSA
Housing MaterialCast Metal
Warranty3 years

This extended specification sheet should provide a more comprehensive understanding of the QSFPTEK CWDM4 transceiver’s capabilities and characteristics. From the power consumption to the interface and housing material, this information can help network engineers and administrators make informed decisions about the appropriateness of this transceiver for their specific networking needs.

The Application of 100G CWDM4

QSFP28 CWDM4 Advantages

The QSFP28 CWDM4 transceiver is especially useful in data center interconnects. It allows for efficient data transfer over a relatively long distance (up to 2km) without sacrificing speed, thus making it an ideal choice for large data centers or cloud service providers.

One of the key advantages of the QSFP28 CWDM4 is its ability to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously, which significantly improves the efficiency of data transmission. This characteristic can help organizations save on infrastructure costs, as fewer fibers are needed for the same data capacity.

Another advantage is its interoperability. The CWDM4 MSA standard is designed to enable compatibility between different manufacturers’ products, providing organizations with the flexibility to integrate devices from various vendors.

qsfp28 ir4 cwdm4


Q1. What is the primary application for the 100G QSFP28 CWDM4?

A1. The primary application for the 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 is in data center interconnects due to its high data transmission rate, long reach, and compatibility with single-mode fiber.

Q2. Can I use QSFP28 CWDM4 with multimode fiber?

A2. No, the QSFP28 CWDM4 is designed specifically for single-mode fiber use.

Q3. What is the maximum data transmission distance for the QSFP28 CWDM4?

A3. The QSFP28 CWDM4 can transmit data up to 2km.

Q4. What are the wavelengths used in the QSFP28 CWDM4?

A4. The QSFP28 CWDM4 uses four different wavelengths: 1270nm, 1290nm, 1310nm, and 1330nm.

Q5. What is the difference between CWDM4 and LR4?

A5. While both CWDM4 and LR4 are standards for 100Gbps optical links, they have distinct characteristics. The CWDM4, as detailed above, uses four channels each operating at 25Gbps over four different wavelengths for a total of 100Gbps on single-mode fiber up to 2km. The LR4, on the other hand, also operates at 100Gbps but can transmit up to 10km. However, LR4 uses more expensive components, such as cooled lasers, which makes CWDM4 a more cost-effective option for shorter distances.

Q6. Can CWDM4 and LR4 interoperate with each other?

A6. Unfortunately, no. While both CWDM4 and LR4 support 100Gbps over single-mode fiber, they operate at different wavelengths and have different reach, which makes them non-interoperable.

Q7. Why should I choose QSFP28 CWDM4 over QSFP28 LR4?

A7. QSFP28 CWDM4 is generally more cost-effective for shorter distances (up to 2km), making it ideal for data center interconnections. It offers similar performance to the LR4 at a lower cost due to its use of uncooled lasers and simpler module construction.

These FAQs should provide a clearer understanding of the 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 transceiver and its advantages over other options such as the LR4. As the demand for higher data rates continues to grow, the 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 is poised to be a go-to solution for organizations that want to optimize their network infrastructure while controlling costs.

100G QSFP28 ER4 Transceiver Introduction

The rapid advancement of network technology continues to push the boundaries of data transmission, with the 100G QSFP28 ER4 transceiver standing as a perfect example. This high-performance optical transceiver supports long-distance data communication up to 40km, serving as a vital component for large data centers, metro area networks, and other network applications that require high-speed, long-distance data transfer.

What is 100Gbase-ER4 Standard?

The 100GBASE-ER4 standard is part of the IEEE 802.3ba specification which defines Ethernet-based data communication over fiber optic cables. ER4 stands for “Extended Reach”, indicating its capacity to support data transmission distances up to 40km over single-mode fiber (SMF). This standard employs 4 wavelengths, each carrying a 25G data stream, to achieve the overall 100G data rate.

What is IEEE 802.3ba: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.3ba

What Is QSFP28 ER4 Transceiver?

The QSFP28 ER4 transceiver is a high-performance optical module that operates according to the 100GBASE-ER4 standard. As the name QSFP28 (Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable) suggests, it contains four independent optical transmitters and receivers, each capable of transmitting data at a rate of 25Gbps, contributing to the combined data rate of 100 Gbps.The 100G ER4 is operating at 4 WDM wavelength: 1295 nm, 1300nm, 1305 nm, 1310nm.

100g QSFP28 ER4

QSFP28-100G-ER4 transceivers are typically equipped with duplex LC connectors, and they incorporate advanced technologies such as SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) to support long-distance data transmission up to 40km.

The Working Principle of 100G QSFP28 ER4

The 100G QSFP28 ER4 transceiver operates by converting electrical signals into optical signals and vice versa. It consists of four channels, each transmitting data at a rate of 25Gbps. The electrical signals are first converted into laser light signals, which are then combined and sent over a single-mode fiber optic cable.

On the receiving end, the transceiver separates the combined light signal into individual wavelengths. An integrated SOA amplifier strengthens the signal before it’s converted back into an electrical signal, ready for processing by the receiving device. This way, a 100G QSFP28 ER4 transceiver can handle the transmission and reception of high-speed data over long distances without significant loss of signal quality.

QSFP28 ER4 Application

QSFP28 ER4 transceivers are commonly employed in various network applications that require long-distance, high-speed data transmission.

Metropolitan Direct Connection

In metropolitan area networks (MANs), QSFP28 ER4 transceivers serve to connect various local area networks (LANs) spread across a city or large campus. Their ability to support high-speed data transmission over distances up to 40km makes them ideal for such applications.

 Data Center Interconnect

Data center interconnect (DCI) is another prominent application area for QSFP28 ER4 transceivers. Data centers often require high-speed, reliable, and long-distance interconnections to ensure efficient data transfer and synchronization between different data centers.


FAQs related to QSFP28 ER4 often revolve around their compatibility, distance capabilities, and use cases. It’s important to note that while QSFP28 ER4 transceivers are designed for long-distance data transmission, their actual performance can depend on various factors, including the quality of the fiber optic cables used and the overall network configuration. They are compatible with devices that support the 100GBASE-ER4 standard, and their applications extend beyond metropolitan networks and data centers to include any situation that requires long-distance, high-speed data transmission.

Q: What distances can QSFP28 ER4 transceivers cover?

A: QSFP28 ER4 transceivers are designed to support distances up to 40km over single-mode fiber optic cables. However, actual distances can vary depending on the quality of the cables and other aspects of the network configuration.

Q: Can QSFP28 ER4 transceivers be used with multimode fiber?

A: No, QSFP28 ER4 transceivers are designed for use with single-mode fiber. Using them with multimode fiber would likely result in a significant reduction in transmission distance and data rate.

Q: What type of connector is used with QSFP28 ER4 transceivers?

A: QSFP28 ER4 transceivers typically use duplex LC connectors, which are widely used in fiber optic communication due to their compact size and reliable performance.

Q: Can QSFP28 ER4 transceivers work with other QSFP28 transceivers?

A: Yes, as long as the other QSFP28 transceiver supports the same data rate and the same or a compatible standard. However, it’s important to remember that the total transmission distance will be limited by the transceiver with the shortest reach.

In conclusion, the 100G QSFP28 ER4 transceiver is a robust solution for high-speed, long-distance data transmission in a variety of network scenarios. Its versatility, performance, and adherence to the 100GBASE-ER4 standard make it an excellent choice for applications ranging from metropolitan networks to data center interconnects. As network demands continue to grow, technologies like the QSFP28 ER4 will undoubtedly play a crucial role in meeting those needs.

The Power of QSFP28 PAM4: Revolutionizing Data Transmission

The growing demand for faster, more efficient data transmission has led to the development and adoption of innovative technologies like the QSFP28 PAM4. This technology, combined with 100G DWDM QSFP28 and 100G coherent transceivers, is setting new benchmarks in the data communication industry. This blog post will explore the concept of PAM4 technology, its application in 100G/400G environments, and the advantages it brings to the table.


What Is PAM4 Technology?

Pulse Amplitude Modulation with 4 levels, or PAM4, is a modulation technique that allows four different pulse amplitudes, effectively doubling the data rate transmitted over a given channel. Unlike traditional binary systems (PAM2) that utilize two levels to represent data, PAM4 employs four levels, thereby doubling the amount of information transmitted in a single operation.

How Does PAM4 QSFP28 Apply for 100G/400G Applications?

In a world where the volume of data transmission is constantly increasing, technologies like PAM4 QSFP28 play a crucial role in addressing the needs of high-speed networks, particularly in 100G and 400G applications.

Large Data Capacity

One of the significant advantages of QSFP28 PAM4 is its ability to carry large data capacities. By utilizing four amplitude levels in its data encoding process, PAM4 effectively doubles the data rate. This increase in data capacity is essential in data center interconnects (DCIs), where data needs to be transmitted and processed at incredibly high speeds.

Lower Power Consumption

Another major benefit of the PAM4 QSFP28 is its lower power consumption. Despite delivering higher performance levels and faster data rates, PAM4 technology consumes less power compared to traditional coherent technology. This feature makes it a more sustainable and cost-effective option for data centers and other large-scale network applications.

Cost Effective

The cost-effectiveness of PAM4 QSFP28 extends beyond its power consumption. PAM4-based transceivers, particularly the 100G PAM4, are cheaper than their 100G coherent counterparts, making them an ideal solution for organizations seeking to optimize their network capabilities while managing costs effectively.

100G DWDM DCI Solution

The combination of PAM4 QSFP28 with 100G DWDM provides a powerful solution for data center interconnects. The PAM4 modulation enhances the capacity and efficiency of the DWDM systems, ensuring seamless data transmission over long distances, which is a critical requirement in DCI applications. DCMs are used to correct the pulse spreading that occurs as light travels through the fiber, which can potentially impact the quality and speed of data transmission. EDFA line cards, on the other hand, amplify the optical signal to ensure that it remains strong and clear, even over long distances.

In light of the numerous benefits they offer, QSFP28 PAM4 DWDM modules have become an increasingly popular choice for a range of 100G and 400G applications. These include point-to-point data center interconnects (DCI), 100G Ethernet metro-access over DWDM, campus and enterprise links, and even 5G mobile access architecture.


QSFPTEK has emerged as a leader in providing high-quality, high-performance network solutions. QSFPTEK’s 100G DWDM QSFP28 PAM4 solution exemplifies this, offering a comprehensive solution for high-capacity data transmission needs.

80km DCI with DCM, EDFA Line Cards

QSFPTEK’s 100G DWDM QSFP28 PAM4 solution is designed to cover long distances, offering a reach of up to 80km. By leveraging Dispersion Compensation Modules (DCM) and Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) line cards, this solution ensures that data transmission remains reliable and efficient even over long distances. Embracing the advantages of embedded DWDM technology, the QSFP28 PAM4 DWDM transceivers are pluggable, allowing for direct insertion into suitable data center routers or switches. This eliminates the need for a separate DWDM converter platform, simplifying the deployment and maintenance process while also significantly reducing the overall cost.

These transceivers incorporate advanced PAM4 technology to ensure high-speed, reliable data transmission, making them a crucial element in today’s high-capacity data centers. Their compact and pluggable design facilitates efficient use of space and seamless integration with existing network equipment, thus providing considerable operational and economic advantages.

However, to fully leverage the capabilities of these PAM4 DWDM transceivers, certain additional considerations come into play, particularly when dealing with long-distance transmissions. Dispersion Compensation Modules (DCMs) and Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) line cards play a crucial role in ensuring optimum performance over longer distances.

Leveraging 100G QSFP28 Transceivers for Efficient Data Center Interconnect – A Comprehensive Guide

In today’s fast-paced digital world, the exponential growth of data has been one of the most defining trends. Data centers, the vital hubs that store, manage, and distribute this vast amount of data, have had to evolve and adapt to handle the demands of today’s global, hyper-connected society. This adaptation involves scaling networks, improving reliability, and increasing bandwidth – tasks that require powerful technology like the 100G transceiver. The 100G QSFP28 transceiver is leading the charge, enabling next-generation high-speed data transmission. This article will delve into the role of 100G transceivers in Data Center Interconnect (DCI), their selection, and their application in various network architectures.

What Is Data Center Interconnect?

Data Center Interconnect refers to the networking of two or more different data centers to achieve business or IT objectives. This multi-site connectivity allows the exchange of data and workload mobility, enabling redundancy, load-balancing, and even disaster recovery capabilities. DCI technology has been widely adopted by large enterprises, cloud service providers, and network service providers to enhance their services, optimize resource utilization, and protect against site failures.

How to Choose 100GBASE QSFP28 in Data Center Applications

When it comes to choosing 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers for data center applications, multiple factors must be carefully considered. The following parameters are vital in making the right choice that caters to the specific needs of a data center:

QSFP28-100G Transcevier

Transmission Distance: Depending on whether the data center interconnection is taking place over a short, medium, or long distance, different types of 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers are required. For example, 100GBASE-SR4 transceivers are typically used for short distances up to 100 meters, while LR4 transceivers are designed for longer distances up to 10 kilometers. ER4 and ZR4 are used for very long distances, reaching up to 40 kilometers and beyond.

Capacity: As data centers grow in size and the amount of data they process, so does the capacity demand on the transceivers. The 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers are designed to handle high capacities, making them ideal for large data center operations.

Data Rate: The ability to transmit data at high speeds is critical in a data center environment. The 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers, with a data rate of 100 Gbps, offer a significant improvement over previous generations and can meet the high-speed requirements of modern data centers.

High-Density: The form factor of the transceiver plays a significant role when dealing with high-density applications. The compact size of the 100GBASE QSFP28 transceiver enables higher port density on the switches, which is crucial in high-performance computing environments where space is at a premium.

Power Consumption for Electricity and Cooling: Power efficiency is a major consideration in data center operations due to the implications for operational expenditure and environmental sustainability. The 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers are designed to operate at a lower power consumption compared to older transceiver models. This reduces the electricity needed for operation and the cooling required to maintain optimum operating temperatures, resulting in significant energy and cost savings.

Cost of Transceivers: While performance is a key factor, the cost of the transceivers also plays a significant role. 100GBASE QSFP28 transceivers offer an optimal balance between cost and performance, providing high-speed data transmission at a relatively low cost. However, the total cost of ownership should also consider factors like power consumption and lifespan.

How to Apply 100G Transceivers in DCI

Spine-Leaf Network Architecture

The Spine-Leaf architecture is a two-layer network topology commonly used in data centers for its scalability and high-bandwidth capabilities. In this architecture, every leaf (access) switch is interconnected with every spine (aggregation) switch, ensuring a high level of redundancy and performance. The 100G QSFP28 transceivers play a pivotal role here, enabling high-speed interconnections between the spine and leaf switches and ensuring smooth data flow across the network.

Long-Haul Connection for Data Centers

For metro area networks or long-haul connections between data centers, the 100G transceivers are indispensable. They provide high-speed, reliable, and efficient data transport over long distances. The unique design and advanced technology of the 100G QSFP28 make it ideal for these applications, providing unparalleled performance and reliability.


In conclusion, 100G transceivers, and specifically the 100G QSFP28 modules, are crucial components in today’s data center networking environment. They are instrumental in facilitating high-speed, efficient, and reliable Data Center Interconnect. Whether in the Spine-Leaf network architecture or for long-haul data center connections, these powerful devices deliver top-notch performance that is vital for large enterprise applications, cloud service providers, and network service providers. QSFPTEK‘s 100G QSFP28 modules and S7600 series network switches are highly recommended for those looking to build or upgrade their data center infrastructure. These products offer exceptional quality, superior performance, and unmatched reliability. As the demands on data centers continue to escalate, QSFPTEK’s advanced solutions ensure that your data center is equipped to handle the data demands of the future

Overview of QSFP2 LR4 100G Transceiver

As data traffic continues to rise, efficient data transmission is becoming increasingly essential. Among the many technologies designed to facilitate this, QSFP28 LR4 100G transceivers stand out due to their high performance and reliability. This article aims to provide an overview of QSFP28 LR4, explaining what it is, how it works, and its advantages and applications, with a specific focus on the QSFPTEK QSFP28-100G-LR4-S Solution.

Definition of QSFP28 LR4

Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable 28 (QSFP28) Long Reach 4 (LR4) is a hot-swappable, compact transceiver used for data communications. As the name suggests, QSFP28 LR4 transceivers support a bandwidth of 100 gigabits per second (Gbps), thus meeting the demands of high-speed networks. They are designed to transmit data over a distance of up to 10 kilometers, using single-mode fiber (SMF), and are therefore primarily used in long-haul network applications.


Here is a table detailing the parameters of QSFP28-100G-LR4:

Data Rate100 Gbps
Wavelength1295~1310 nm
Max Distance10 km
Cable TypeSingle Mode Fiber (SMF)
Connector TypeLC Duplex
TX Power-4.3~4.5dBm
Receiver Sensitivity< -10.6dBm
Power ConsumptionMax 3.5W
Operating Temperature0 to 70°C
100G QSFP28 LR4 parameters

How Does 1000G LR4 Work?

The QSFP 100G LR4 transceiver works by converting electrical signals into optical signals and vice versa. It uses a 4-lane approach, where each lane operates at a data rate of 25 Gbps. The 4 lanes use Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), enabling them to operate on four distinct wavelengths, effectively transmitting 100G of data in parallel. These signals are then transmitted over single-mode fiber (SMF) cables up to a distance of 10 km.

On the receiving end, the QSFP28 LR4 transceiver takes the incoming optical signals and converts them back into electrical signals, thereby completing the communication process.

QSFPTEK QSFP28-100G-LR4-S Solution

QSFPTEK offers a highly reliable and efficient solution – the QSFP28-100G-LR4-S transceiver. This module is designed for 100 Gigabit Ethernet links and offers a power-efficient and cost-effective solution for long-haul data transmission. It is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.3ba 100GBASE-LR4 standard, ensuring high interoperability and performance.

QSFP 100G LR4 Advantages

High Speed: With a data transmission rate of 100 Gbps, QSFP28 LR4 can handle high-speed network demands efficiently.

Long Distance: It supports transmission distances of up to 10 km, making it suitable for long-haul applications.

Efficiency: The WDM technology enables four data streams to be transmitted simultaneously, increasing data transmission efficiency.

Hot-swappable: QSFP28 LR4 transceivers can be swapped without turning off the network system, reducing downtime.

QSFP 100G LR4 Applications

100G to 100G Campus Network Connection

In campuses where high-speed data transmission is required across different buildings, QSFP 100GBASE-LR4 transceivers provide a robust solution due to their ability to cover long distances and handle large amounts of data.

100G-100G Interconnect in Data Center

With the surge in cloud computing, data centers require high-speed and reliable interconnections. QSFP28 LR4 transceivers enable efficient communication between servers and switches, helping to maintain fast and reliable data center operations.

100G Connect 100G Enterprise Core Layer

Enterprise core networks, the backbone of an enterprise’s communication infrastructure, can greatly benefit from the high-speed transmission offered by QSFP28 LR4 transceivers. They provide an efficient solution for connecting core switches and routers, thereby ensuring smooth data transmission within the enterprise network.

QSFP28-100G-LR4 FAQs

Q1: Can QSFP28-100G-LR4 transceivers be used in multimode fiber applications?

A1: No, QSFP 100G LR4 transceivers are designed for single-mode fiber applications. They operate at a wavelength of 1310 nm, which is typically used for long-haul transmission over single-mode fiber.

Q2: Are QSFP28-100G-LR4-S transceivers compatible with all devices?

A2: QSFP28 LR4 transceivers are typically compatible with devices that support the QSFP28 form factor and 100G Ethernet. However, it is always recommended to check the device’s compatibility list before purchasing.

Q3: How can I ensure the best performance of my QSFP LR4 100G transceiver?

A3: To ensure the best performance, it’s important to keep the transceiver and the fiber optic connectors clean. Any dust or dirt can affect the signal quality. Also, ensure that the operating conditions like temperature and humidity are within the specified range.

In conclusion, the QSFP28 LR4 100G transceiver is an effective solution for high-speed data transmission over long distances. Its compact form factor, high efficiency, and compatibility with the QSFP28 standard make it a suitable choice for a variety of network applications, including campus networks, data centers, and enterprise core networks.

The High-Performance L3+ Access Layer Switch: A Deep Dive into S5600-24T8X Features and Applications

What is an L3+ Network Switch?

To understand the intricacies of network infrastructures, it’s important to familiarize ourselves with the key components, one of which is the L3+ switch. A Layer 3 (L3) switch, also known as a multilayer switch, operates at both the data link layer (Layer 2) and the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. This means it combines the functionalities of a regular switch and a router, providing hardware-based routing for ultra-low latency. The “+” in L3+ signifies additional features that enhance the switch’s capabilities, such as advanced security, quality of service (QoS), and support for IPv6 technology.

What is an Access Layer Network?

The access layer, often referred to as the network edge, is the first and foremost component of a tier 3 network. It’s the layer that interfaces directly with network devices like computers, printers, and IP phones. The essential function of an access layer switch is to provide a point of entry into the network. This includes controlling device connectivity, implementing policies for different types of network traffic, and managing how packets are forwarded to the network core. With the evolution of networking technology, access layer switches have evolved to support more advanced features, ensuring efficient, secure, and reliable connectivity.

S5600-24T8X: High-Performance L3+ Access Layer Switch

In the vast sea of network switches, the S5600-24T8X distinguishes itself as an exceptional L3+ access layer switch. This high-performance model is specially designed to offer efficient and reliable network services, keeping in tune with the advancing landscape of data transmission.

S5600-24T8X network switch

From its high-density Gigabit access to its high-speed 10G uplinks and impressive switching and forwarding rates, the S5600-24T8X is truly a testament to the power and reliability of modern network switches. This high-performance L3+ access layer switch is thus strategically engineered to not only meet today’s networking demands but also anticipate and adapt to the ever-evolving networking landscape.

Features of S5600-24T8X SFP+ Switch

When delving into the features of the S5600-24T8X SFP+ switch, there are a few remarkable functionalities that separate this model from others in its category. Notably, it supports RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access), a valuable feature that enables high throughput and ultra-low latency, all while minimizing CPU overhead.

RDMA allows data to move directly from the memory of one computer into that of another without involving the processor, cache, or operating system of either system. This process significantly reduces latency, increases data transfer speed, and frees up resources, making it an invaluable feature for data-intensive applications.

Accompanying RDMA is the combination of PFC (Priority Flow Control) and ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) functionalities. Once end-to-end network connectivity is established, enabling these two features ensures lossless transport for RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) traffic. PFC manages the flow of data by pausing specific types of traffic when the network is congested, while ECN alleviates network congestion without dropping packets, thus maintaining the integrity and efficiency of data transport.

In addition to these, the S5600-24T8X switch supports VXLAN (Virtual Extensible LAN), a network virtualization technology that addresses scalability issues in large cloud computing deployments. It also features MLAG (Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation), EVPN (Ethernet Virtual Private Network), VARP (Virtual ARP), and PFC, providing robust tools to handle complex networking scenarios.

Specifically, MLAG allows a switch to join multiple links to achieve higher bandwidth and redundancy, while EVPN facilitates network virtualization and segmentation. VARP, on the other hand, ensures load balancing and network reliability. These features combined render the S5600-24T8X an optimal choice for data centers where high performance, scalability, and reliability are key. 

Application of S5600-24T8X Ethernet Switch

The S5600-24T8X, as a 10G Ethernet switch, finds its application in a multitude of scenarios. It is ideal for SMBs, enterprise networks, and data centers where high performance, bandwidth, and reliability are paramount. Its superior feature set allows it to effortlessly manage complex, high-traffic networks, maintaining swift, secure, and stable connectivity. Moreover, the inclusion of 8*10GE uplink ports is a significant feature of the S5600-24T8X. These ports, equipped to use 10G SFP+ SR/LR modules, provide a robust, high-speed connection to the network backbone. The availability of these 10G uplinks facilitates faster data transfer speeds, ensuring that bottlenecks do not hinder network performance, especially in high-traffic environments. 


The QSFPTEK S5600-24T8X, with its blend of powerful features and high performance, stands as a testament to the advances in L3+ switch technology. Alongside, QSFPTEK’s S7600 series data center switches offer even more powerful options for those in need of greater network capacities. These switches not only meet current networking demands but are also designed with a vision for the future, supporting IPv6 and exhibiting robust data center features. The choice of these switches ultimately allows organizations to build a scalable, secure, and resilient network infrastructure that can evolve with their needs.

100Gbe QSFP Strength and Applications


In the rapidly evolving world of networking, the demand for higher data transfer speeds continues to grow. To meet this demand, the 100GbE QSFP28 (Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceiver has emerged as a powerful solution. With its numerous advantages and wide range of applications, the 100GbE QSFP28 is revolutionizing the way data is transmitted across networks.

SFP to QSFP to QSFP28 – Transceiver Development

The development of transceivers has undergone a remarkable evolution, progressing from Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) to QSFP and ultimately to QSFP28. This transition has ushered in significant advancements in data transfer capabilities, empowering networks with higher speeds and increased bandwidth to meet the ever-growing demands of modern applications.

SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceivers were the initial standard for compact optical modules, primarily used for Gigabit Ethernet applications. These compact transceivers supported data rates of up to 1.25 Gbps and were suitable for short-distance transmissions over multimode fibers. SFP modules quickly gained popularity due to their flexibility, ease of installation, and hot-swappable design.

As the need for higher data transfer speeds emerged, the industry responded with the development of QSFP (Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceivers. QSFP modules introduced a significant leap in performance, offering four times the data capacity of their SFP predecessors. They were capable of supporting data rates of up to 40 Gbps and provided compatibility with various Ethernet and Fibre Channel protocols. However, the demand for even higher speeds and greater bandwidth continued to escalate, leading to the emergence of QSFP28 transceivers. QSFP28 represents the latest standard in transceiver technology, supporting data rates of up to 100 Gbps. By doubling the data capacity of its predecessor, QSFP28 enables network operators to achieve greater efficiency and scalability in their data transmission.

100Gb QSFP28 – What are the Advantages?

100g qsfp28 transceiver

Low Cost per Gbps Traffic: The 100Gb QSFP28 offers a cost-effective solution for high-speed data transmission. With its ability to handle large volumes of traffic, it minimizes the cost per Gbps, making it an efficient choice for network scalability.

High Density: QSFP28’s compact form factor enables high port density, allowing network operators to maximize the utilization of their network infrastructure. This feature is particularly beneficial in data center environments where space is limited.

Fiber Cable Savings: By utilizing the 100Gb QSFP28 transceiver, network operators can save on fiber cabling costs. QSFP28 supports breakout cables, enabling the transmission of multiple lower-speed signals simultaneously over a single fiber, thereby reducing the number of cables required.

100GbE QSFP28 – How to Use It?

The 100GbE QSFP28 transceiver finds application in various network scenarios, including:

Multimode Optical Fiber Wiring between Switches (up to 100m): For short-range connections within data centers, the 100G SR4 variant of QSFP28 is used. It supports multimode fiber connections and is ideal for high-speed communication between switches within a short distance.

Single Mode Optical Fiber Wiring between Switches (100m-2km): When the distance between switches exceeds 100 meters but remains within 2 kilometers, the 100G CWDM4 variant is employed. It enables high-speed transmission over single-mode fiber and is commonly used for interconnecting switches in different sections of a data center.

Long-Range Single Mode Fiber (up to 10km): When the transmission distance extends up to 10 kilometers, the 100G LR4 variant of QSFP28 is utilized. This transceiver allows for reliable long-haul transmission over single-mode fiber, making it suitable for connecting switches across larger network infrastructures.

Long Haul (40km-80km): For even greater transmission distances, the 100G ER4 and 100G ZR4 variants of QSFP28 are deployed. These transceivers are designed to handle long-haul connections, such as those required for metropolitan and regional networks.

Where to Buy Cost-Effective 100G SFP?

When considering the purchase of cost-effective 100G SFP transceivers, QSFPTek offers a range of reliable and high-quality products. QSFPTek’s 100G QSFP series provides a cost-effective solution without compromising on compatibility or performance. With competitive prices and a commitment to customer satisfaction, QSFPTek is a trusted source for acquiring cost-effective 100G SFP transceivers.


The 100GbE QSFP28 transceiver has become an integral component of modern network infrastructure, offering significant advantages such as low cost per Gbps traffic, high port density, and fiber cable savings. Its versatility allows it to be deployed in various network applications, ranging from short-range data center connections to long-haul transmissions. As the demand for high-speed data transfer continues to rise, the 100GbE QSFP28 is poised to play a crucial role in meeting these requirements efficiently and effectively.

Evolution of 100G Transceivers: Empowering High-Speed Data Centers


In today’s fast-paced digital landscape, the demand for high-speed and reliable data transmission has soared, leading to the development of advanced networking technologies. One such breakthrough is the emergence of 100G transceivers, offering lightning-fast data transfer capabilities for a variety of applications. This article explores the different types of 100G transceivers and their significance in transforming data centers and core network infrastructure.

100G Transceiver Types

The evolution of 100G transceivers has witnessed the introduction of various form factors to accommodate diverse networking needs. The 100G CFP (C form-factor pluggable) paved the way for early high-speed transmission, followed by the more compact CFP2 and CFP4 modules. Additionally, the 100G CXP (Compact eXtensible Pluggable) and QSFP28 (Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable 28) have gained prominence due to their enhanced density and improved power efficiency.

The evolution of 100G transceivers has witnessed the introduction of various form factors to accommodate diverse networking needs. Let’s explore two prominent form factors in detail: the 100G CFP and QSFP28.

100G CFP (C form-factor pluggable)

The 100G CFP transceiver played a pivotal role in enabling early high-speed transmission. It was designed to support 100Gbps data rates and offered a versatile solution for high-bandwidth applications. The CFP module features a larger form factor compared to its successors, allowing for robust optical and electrical interfaces. Its larger size also facilitated efficient heat dissipation, ensuring reliable performance in demanding environments.

The 100G CFP form factor underwent further advancements to enhance its compactness and power efficiency, leading to the introduction of the CFP2 and CFP4 modules.

100G CFP2

The 100G CFP2 module, as its name suggests, is the second-generation form factor of the CFP transceiver. It retains the 100Gbps data rate capability while reducing the physical size compared to the original CFP module. The CFP2 form factor provides a more compact and power-efficient solution, making it well-suited for high-density applications where space and power consumption are critical factors.

100G CFP4

The 100G CFP4 module represents the next step in the evolution of the CFP transceiver family. By further reducing the size, the CFP4 form factor offers even higher density and improved power efficiency compared to its predecessors. This compact form factor allows for more transceivers to be accommodated in a single line card or switch, enabling network operators to maximize port density and optimize their infrastructure.

QSFP28 (Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable 28)

The QSFP28 transceiver has gained significant prominence in the 100G transceiver landscape, thanks to its enhanced density and improved power efficiency. The “quad” in QSFP28 signifies its capability to support four lanes of high-speed data transmission. Each lane operates at 25Gbps, summing up to the overall 100Gbps data rate.

The QSFP28 module is significantly smaller than the CFP series, making it an ideal choice for applications where space optimization is crucial, such as high-density switches and routers. Its compact form factor also contributes to improved power efficiency, reducing energy consumption and operational costs in data center deployments.

The QSFP28 transceiver supports a wide range of protocols and applications, including 100GBASE-SR4 and various single-mode options, making it a versatile solution for diverse networking requirements.

qsfp28 transceiver

100G QSFP28 and 100G Multimode Transmission

Among the 100G transceiver options, the 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 module is widely used for short-range multimode transmission. With its four parallel optical lanes, it delivers high-speed connectivity within data centers and serves as a crucial component in campus network core layers. The 100GBASE-SR4 enables efficient 100G uplinks and supports the ever-increasing bandwidth demands of modern enterprises.

The QSFP28-100G-SR4 transceiver is designed with a compact form factor, conforming to the QSFP28 standard. It incorporates four parallel optical lanes, each operating at 25Gbps, resulting in a total aggregated data rate of 100Gbps. The transceiver module employs Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF) as the transmission medium, which enables efficient data transfer over relatively shorter distances.

The optical interface of the 100G SR4 QSFP transceiver utilizes an MPO (Multi-Fiber Push-On) connector, facilitating the connection of the transceiver with the corresponding fiber optic cabling.

Applications of 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 Transceiver

The 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceiver is specifically designed for short-range multimode transmission within data centers and serves as a critical component in the core layers of campus networks. It offers several advantages in these scenarios:

Data Center Connectivity: 

In high-density data center environments, where rapid data processing and communication are essential, the 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceiver enables seamless and high-speed connectivity between switches, routers, and servers. Its ability to support 100G uplinks allows for efficient data transfer within the data center fabric, enhancing overall network performance and reducing latency.

Campus Network Core Layers:

The 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceiver plays a vital role in the core layers of campus networks, enabling fast and reliable communication between different buildings or departments within an organization. By providing high-speed connectivity, it ensures efficient data transfer for bandwidth-intensive applications, such as video streaming, cloud services, and large-scale data processing.

The 100GBASE-SR4 QSFP28 transceiver is well-suited for applications where the transmission distance is limited, typically ranging from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers, depending on the quality and type of multimode fiber used.

100G QSFP Single-Mode Transmission

For long-distance communication, single-mode transmission is essential. The QSFP28 transceiver series offers several options for single-mode applications. The QSFP28-100G-LR4(10km), QSFP28-100G-CWDM4(2km), QSFP28-100G-ER4(40km), and QSFP28-100G-ZR4(80km) modules are designed to deliver high-speed connectivity over extended distances, catering to the connectivity requirements of metropolitan networks, inter-data center connections, and long-haul deployments.

Conclusion: Unleashing the Power of QSFPtek 100G Transceivers

As the demand for high-speed Ethernet continues to grow, QSFPTEK stands at the forefront of 100G transceiver development, offering cutting-edge solutions that empower data centers and network infrastructure. Their 100G transceivers are built to deliver exceptional performance, reliability, and compatibility across a wide range of applications. By leveraging QSFPtek’s state-of-the-art technology, businesses can harness the full potential of 100G Ethernet, unlocking new possibilities in data-intensive environments.